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Psychiatry & Medication

MAOI (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor)

The Bottom Line

  • MAOI is an antidepressant usually prescribed to treat depression.
  • Certain MAOIs are FDA-approved for depression.
  • MAOI medications are not FDA-approved to treat anxiety.
  • Require diet restrictions.

What is an MAOI?

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) were the first type of antidepressants to be developed, in the early 1950s. Examples of MAOIs used to treat depression include: 

  1. Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
  2. Phenelzine (Nardil)
  3. Selegiline (Emsam)
  4. Tranylcypromine (Parnate) 

Although these MAOI medications are prescribed to treat depression, the off-label uses include generalized anxiety disorder(GAD), panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD). A doctor may also prescribe them to treat Parkinson’s and other mental health conditions which did not respond to other antidepressants. If you are considering using a prescription medication to treat any condition, always consult a doctor beforehand.

MAOI medications work through affecting monoamine oxidase enzymes, which then modulate certain neurotransmitters in the brain, including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. By affecting the reuptake of these chemicals, MAOI elevate their levels allowing them to continue influencing cells that have been previously affected.

However, while effective, MAOIs are no longer considered the first-line medications for depression treatment. They may dangerously interact with other medications, health supplements, and even foods. For these reasons, they are often used when a patient does not respond to another treatment.

What are the different MAOIs?

The examples of MAOI medications are:

  • Rasagiline 
  • Selegiline 
  • Isocarboxazid 
  • Phenelzine 
  • Tranylcypromine 

What conditions are MAOIs used for?

MAOI is used for various mental health conditions. A doctor may prescribe them for different types of depression, anxiety disorders, Parkinson’s among others. Also, some MAOIs can be prescribed to treat bulimia nervosa, PTSD, pain, migraine as well as attention deficit disorder (ADD).

Can MAOIs be taken for Anxiety? 

MAOI is believed to be effective for anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety, social phobia, PTSD, OCD, and panic attacks. 

Which MAOI are FDA approved for anxiety?

MAOI medications are not approved for anxiety by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, a doctor may prescribe a MAOI off-label for anxiety. 

Can MAOIs be taken for Depression? 

MAOI is a type of medication prescribed to treat different types of depression. They are most well-known for efficacy in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and atypical depression, however, they are not the first-line medication for these mental health conditions. They may interact with various medications and health supplements as well as require certain dietary restrictions.

Which MAOIs are FDA approved for depression?

The FDA approved the following MAOI medications for depression:

  • Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
  • Selegiline (Emsam)
  • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)

The FDA also issued a black box warning for MAOI medications, as they have the potential to increase suicidal thinking in adults. Prescription and caution are required.

What research supports MAOIs for anxiety?

There is extensive research supporting MAOI for anxiety:

  • Tranylcypromine was studied for panic disorder and social anxiety efficacy in a double-blind dose comparison trial. Tranylcypromine was administered in 30 mg and 60 mg dosages to subjects for 12 weeks. Tranylcypromine 30 mg reduced panic attacks in 69.9% of subjects, while Tranylcypromine 60 mg reduced panic attacks in 74.8% of subjects. for social anxiety. Tranylcypromine 60 mg was twice as effective compared to the lower dose. 
  • Phenelzine was studied against a placebo for efficacy in treating phobic anxiety in a double-blind trial. 40 subjects with agoraphobia and social phobia were administered either with Phenelzine or placebo for two months. The Phenelzine group reported significant improvements compared to the placebo. The study suggested prescribing Phenelzine for anxiety disorders for at least two months to maximize the benefits of the treatment.
  • Selegiline was studied for efficacy in social phobia treatment. 16 subjects took the Selegiline dose of 5mg/daily for 6 weeks. Subjects were seen weekly by a psychiatrist to examine their clinical state using the the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale as well as, the Liebowitz Social Phobic Disorders Scale. The results have demonstrated that only 9 subjects completed the study, while 3 subjects out of total 16 have found Selegiline effective for anxiety and have been clinically improved with social phobia symptoms.

What do experts say about MAOIs for anxiety? 

Kenneth Schulman, MD, says about MAOI “Unfamiliarity and ignorance lead to apprehensions concerning MAOIs, removing an excellent therapeutic option.”

Steven Stahl, MD, Ph.D., author of Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology says about Nardil “a pharmaceutical secret weapon for patients who fail to respond to the better-known agents.”

What are the possible side effects of the various MAOIs? 

MAOI has an extensive profile of possible side effects, including:

  • drowsiness;
  • nausea;
  • dry mouth;
  • insomnia;
  • hypertension;
  • hypotension;
  • weight gain;
  • confusion.

Do not abruptly stop taking MAOI without speaking to your doctor. Sudden discontinuation may lead to withdrawal symptoms including:

  • insomnia;
  • nightmares;
  • anxiety;
  • irritability.

The full list of side effects and the severity depends on the individual patient’s medical history and treatment regimen.

Overdose incidents have been reported when taking MAOI. 

MAOI may impair your ability to drive. Do not take MAOI until you know how they affect your body. Always speak to your doctor if you experience any side effects when taking MAOI.

MAOI may interact with certain medications. Disclose your full list of medications alongside health supplements to your doctor.

Medications that MAOIs potentially interact with include:

  • Other antidepressants including Fluoxetine;
  • Pain killers;
  • Seizure medications;
  • St.John’s wort.

MAOI medications require dietary restrictions. Abstain from eating and drinking the following products when taking MAOI:

  • Cheese (except for cream cheese and cottage cheese);
  • Sauerkraut;
  • Soy products;
  • Yogurt;
  • Caviar;
  • Fermented sausages;
  • Beer and red wine.

After discontinuing the treatment with MAOI, a patient should abstain from these foods for at least two weeks.

Can you take an MAOI while pregnant or breastfeeding?

MAOI is not recommended for pregnant women. These antidepressants have the potential to harm the fetus. A doctor may occasionally prescribe them if benefits outweigh risks.

MAOI is not recommended when breastfeeding.

Other treatments are available for anxiety in pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.

Can children take MAOIs for anxiety?

The use of MAOI in children is not recommended. Other treatments are available for anxiety in children.

How to take MAOIs?

MAOI dosage is tailored individually based on a patient’s medical history and treatment regimen.

  • The initial dosing regimen with Phenelzine is 15 mg 3 times per day. 
  • Isocarboxazid is 30 mg one time per day.
  • Selegiline is 1.25 mg one time per day.
  • Tranylcypromine is 10 mg one time per day.

MAOI can be taken with or without food as prescribed by the doctor. Be mindful of the dietary restrictions, and do not take certain foods alongside MAOI.

Do not change the dosage without speaking to your doctor.

If you believe you have overdosed seek emergency help immediately (call 911). 

Are there alternatives to MAOIs? 

Prescription medications as Alternatives to MAOIs for Anxiety

MAOIs can be prescribed to treat depression. A doctor may occasionally use these medications off-label for anxiety. Speak to your doctor about taking MAIOs, as it may not be a good fit for your particular case. There are many other prescription medications that may be an alternative. Some of them are:

  • Klonopin
  • Valium
  • Lexapro
  • Prozac
  • Buspirone
  • Xanax
  • Inderal
  • Cymbalta
  • Tofranil
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Zoloft

There are various alternatives. If you’d like to learn more about whether MAOI, another medication or treatment modality is right for you, we recommend that you speak with a licensed psychiatrist. Here are the best online psychiatry platforms so you can speak with someone right away!

Therapy as an Alternative to MAOI

Learn more about different therapy options for anxiety here

Energy & Holistic Modalities as an Alternative to MAOI

Learn more about different energy & holistics modalities for anxiety here

Tech & Devices as Alternative Treatments to MAOI

Learn more about tech & devices for anxiety here

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

Categories
Psychiatry & Medication

Selegiline: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions

The Bottom Line:

  • Selegiline is a medication prescribed for Parkinson’s disease and depression treatment.
  • Off-label uses include anxiety, social phobia, dementia.
  • FDA-approved to treat Parkinson’s disease.
  • Available in tablets and transdermal patches.
  • Requires dietary restrictions if taking tablets.

What is Selegiline?

Selegiline is a medication in the monoamine oxidase inhibitor type B (MAOI-B) class. It is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, such as tremors, motion abnormalities, and depression. Off-label use includes social phobia, anxiety, dementia. Selegiline is occasionally prescribed in combination with other medications to treat Parkinson’s such as Levodopa. 

Brand names for Selegiline include L-deprenyl, Zelapar, and Anipryl (veterinary medicine). It is available as tablets and transdermal patches.

Can Selegiline be taken for Anxiety?

The mechanism of action for anxiety treatment is not clearly understood, however, it is believed to block monoamine oxidase enzymes and balancing neurotransmitters in the brain such as serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline. Balancing these chemicals can benefit motion response for Parkinson’s disease treatment and improve mood by affecting anxiety symptoms in adults and animals. The brand for veterinary use Anipryl is actively prescribed for anxiety disorders in dogs and cats.

Is Selegiline FDA approved for anxiety?

Both brand forms for Selegiline, El-deprenyl, and Zelapar have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat Parkinson’s disease. They are not approved by the FDA for anxiety, but are sometimes used off-label for anxiety in adults and veterinary medicine. Transdermal patches for depression treatment have a black box warning from the FDA. Like other antidepressants, it may increase the potential of suicidal thoughts in adults.

What research supports Selegiline for anxiety? 

The research on Selegiline efficacy for anxiety treatment in humans is less supported than for in animals. However, there is clinical evidence demonstrating its potential use in humans.

  • Selegiline was studied for efficacy in social phobia treatment. 16 subjects took the Selegiline dose of 5mg/daily for 6 weeks. Subjects were seen weekly by a psychiatrist to examine their clinical state and side effects caused by the medication. The results have demonstrated that only 9 subjects completed the study, while the 3 out of total 16 have found Selegiline effective and have been clinically improved with social phobia symptoms.
  • Selegiline transdermal use was studied against the placebo on safety and efficacy in adolescents with depressive and psychotic symptoms. In 12 weeks, Selegiline has been found safe and well-tolerated in all subjects over the placebo, however, with a higher potentiality to side effects.

What do experts say about Selegiline for anxiety?

Andrew Gardiner, chief executive of Syntropharma says “By delivering Selegiline through the skin, the reaction with foodstuffs is avoided, offering for the first time all the reported benefits Selegiline has to offer without the same level of risks.”

What are the possible side effects? 

Selegiline side effects that have been reported during clinical trials include:

  • dizziness;
  • nausea;
  • headache;
  • insomnia;
  • back pain;
  • depression;
  • increased libido;
  • hallucinations;
  • vomiting.

Selegiline withdrawal symptoms after sudden discontinuation of treatment include:

  • chest pain;
  • dropped blood pressure;
  • dizziness;
  • myasthenia.

This medication should be prescribed with caution. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns about its potentiality to increase suicidal thoughts in adults. 

If taking Selegiline alongside Levodopa (a medication used for Parkinson’s disease treatment), you may experience more side effects.

Combination with Levodopa may result in:

  • nausea;
  • tremor;
  • mood changes.

This is not an extensive list of all possible adverse effects. Always speak to your doctor before taking Selegiline.

Does Selegiline have interactions with other medications?

Selegiline may interact with certain medications, including:

  • Antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs);
  • Other monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI);
  • Opioids;
  • Birth control pills;
  • Sympathomimetics;
  • Levodopa;
  • Cytochrome P450 Enzymes.

Use of Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) requires following a certain meal plan for efficient treatment, as food and beverages may interact with Selegiline tablets. Some restricted foods and drinks include:

  • dry sausages, salamis;
  • cheese except for cottage and cream cheese;
  • beans;
  • herring;
  • liver;
  • yogurt;
  • beer and wine.

Selegiline transdermal patches were manufactured to try to avoid food and beverage restrictions.

Always speak to your doctor about all possible interactions to avoid side effects.

Can you take Selegiline while pregnant or breastfeeding? 

There is not enough clinical evidence about the safety of Selegiline in pregnant women. A doctor may occasionally prescribe it if the benefits outweigh the risks. In animal studies, Selegiline use has been linked to low fetus body weight and increased risk of stillbirth. Speak to your doctor if you are pregnant or have childbearing intentions while taking Selegiline.

There is also no known evidence about Selegiline to be excreted into human milk.  

Can children take Selegiline for anxiety? 

Selegiline is not recommended for use in pediatrics. A transdermal patch is contraindicated in children under 12. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) links its danger in young patients to hypertensive effects and risk of suicidal thoughts. 

How to take Selegiline? 

The initial dosage for Parkinson’s disease treatment (alone or alongside Levodopa) is 1.25 mg one time per day. The effect can be felt approximately in a 6 weeks’ time frame. A doctor may increase the dose if there are no significant improvements.

The Selegiline dosage for other health conditions is prescribed individually based on previous treatment, symptoms, age. 

Doctors recommend taking tablets in the morning before meals and without water.

Do not take it prior to sleeping. It may lead to insomnia.

Patients prescribed with a transdermal patch to treat depression should apply it to the skin, and keep it for 24 hours.

Take it as directed. If you experience an overdose, seek emergency help immediately (call 911).

If you skip a dose, take it as soon as you remember, and address this concern with your doctor.

Are there alternatives to Selegiline? 

Prescription medications as Alternatives to Selegiline for Anxiety 

Selegiline is a medication with off-label uses for anxiety treatment. It requires a certain diet plan if you are taking it in tablet form, and may not be fit for your particular case. Speak to your doctor about other prescription medications, such as:

  • Klonopin
  • Valium
  • Lexapro
  • Prozac
  • Buspirone
  • Xanax
  • Inderal
  • Cymbalta
  • Tofranil
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Zoloft

There are various alternatives. If you’d like to learn more about whether Selegiline, another medication or treatment modality is right for you, we recommend that you speak with a licensed psychiatrist. Here are the best online psychiatry platforms so you can speak with someone right away!

Therapy as an Alternative to Selegiline

Learn more about different therapy options for anxiety here

Energy & Holistic Modalities as an Alternative to Selegiline

Learn more about different energy & holistics modalities for anxiety here

Tech & Devices as Alternative Treatments to Selegiline

Learn more about tech & devices for anxiety here

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

Categories
Psychiatry & Medication

Pamelor for Anxiety

The Bottom Line

  • Pamelor is a tricyclic antidepressant prescribed for depression treatment.
  • FDA-approved for depression treatment.
  • Off-label use includes anxiety, stress, and chronic pain management.
  • Available in capsules and oral solution.

What is Pamelor?

Pamelor is a medication from the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) class. It is indicated for use in patients with depression and as a relief for its accompanying symptoms of anxiety, stress, chronic pain. Doctors occasionally prescribe it to treat endogenous depression caused by genetic, hereditary or biological reasons rather than by specific triggers. Off-label use includes the treatment of panic disorder, migraine, and help with quitting smoking.

Pamelor is administered orally and comes in capsules of 10, 25, 50, 75mg strengths and oral solution. Nortriptyline is a generic name for Pamelor. Alongside nortriptyline hydrochloride, the active ingredient of Pamelor, the capsules contain gelatin, silicone fluid, starch, titanium dioxide, a yellow coloring agent.

Can Pamelor be taken for Anxiety? 

Pamelor can be taken for anxiety treatment. Specifically, a doctor may prescribe it when anxiety comes as an accompanying symptom of depression. The precise mechanism of how Pamelor works for anxiety is not clearly understood. However, Pamelor is a tricyclic antidepressant which is believed to work by regulating the reuptake of neurotransmitters in the brain that affect the mood. Pamelor exhibits antidepressant effects and relieves symptoms of anxiety or stress. 

Is Pamelor FDA approved for anxiety?

Nortriptyline is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat depression. Pamelor is known to be used off-label for anxiety, stress and pain management, quitting smoking, migraine. This medication has a black box warning from the FDA, as it has the potentiality to increase suicidal thinking in adults. It is not approved for pediatrics. 

What research supports Pamelor for anxiety?

There is lack of research on the stand-alone use of Pamelor for anxiety disorder treatment, however, its efficacy in treating anxiety symptoms resulting from depression has been supported by several studies.

  • Nortriptyline (Pamelor) was studied against Sertraline on efficacy and safety in adults over 60 with a depression diagnosis. For 12 weeks the patients were administered with Nortriptyline 25-100mg and Sertraline 50-150mg daily. Both medications showed improvements, over the same time frame, and efficacy in the long-term applications
  • Nortriptyline was studied against the placebo on efficacy in mood improvements in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 30 subjects took Nortriptyline over a 12-week trial. The results have demonstrated that it improved anxiety scores, certain respiratory issues, and the overall well-being.
  • Nortriptyline and Fluoxetine were studied against the placebo in depression and recovery after a stroke treatment. The groups were divided. Subjects from 1 group took Nortriptyline 25-100mg, 2 group took Fluoxetine 10mg and 3 group took placebo over 12 weeks. Nortriptyline group has been linked to higher response in treating poststroke depression, relieving anxiety symptoms, and boosting energy.

What do experts say about Pamelor for anxiety?

Mark Sullivan, MD, Ph.D., a professor of psychiatry at the University of Washington in Seattle says “Many patients struggle with insomnia and anxiety as they taper opioids. It’s important that prescribers don’t add medications such as sedatives, benzodiazepines, or muscle relaxants that can increase risk of opioid overdose in unpredictable ways. Tricyclic antidepressants, like nortriptyline, can provide a safer alternative treatment for anxiety and insomnia.”

What are the possible side effects? 

Pamelor has not been linked to distinctive side effects during the clinical trials.

Pamelor side effects:

  • hypertension;
  • stroke;
  • hallucinations;
  • insomnia;
  • anxiety;
  • ataxia;
  • tremors;
  • skin rash;
  • dry mouth;
  • nausea;
  • vomiting.

Abrupt discontinuation of Pamelor use after long-term treatment may cause withdrawal symptoms:

  • nausea;
  • headache.

Pamelor has a potentiality to impair alertness and driving abilities. Inform your doctor if you operate heavy machinery or if you drive. 

Does Pamelor have interactions with other medications? 

Certain medications may interact with Pamelor. Always speak to your doctor about an extensive list of all possible interactions, and inform the doctor about your current intake of medication, herbs and health supplements.

There are potential interactions of Pamelor with the following medications:

  • Anticholinergics;
  • Sympathomimetics;
  • Cimetidine;
  • Chlorpropamide;
  • Monoamine oxidize inhibitors (MAOI);
  • Selected antidepressants including other tricyclic medications;
  • Serotonergic.

Abstain from grapefruit juice while taking Pamelor, as it may cause unwanted side effects and increase plasma concentrations of the medication.

Pamelor’s side effects include increase suicidal thinking, worsen depression, cause drowsiness in adults if taken with alcohol. Also, interactions of tricyclic antidepressants with alcohol have been linked to overdose events. Caution is required.

Can you take Pamelor while pregnant or breastfeeding?

There is a lack of evidence about the safety and efficacy of Pamelor in pregnant women. It is important to speak to your doctor about its application during pregnancy.

Pamelor excretes into human milk but in small concentrations. It has not been linked to side effects in newborns, but still, it is recommended to assess all the benefits over the risks with a doctor. 

Can children take Pamelor for anxiety?

Pamelor is not usually prescribed to children with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not approve it for pediatric use.

How to take Pamelor?

Pamelor is individually prescribed for anxiety and depression treatment based on age, symptoms, and medical history. 

The capsules and liquid are administrated orally. It is best to take Pamelor in the evening, one hour before sleep.

Adults. 25mg 3-4 times per day.

Seniors. 30-50mg one time per day in divided doses.

Take it as directed with or without food. Do not increase the dose at your sole discretion without consulting your doctor. If you do not feel better during the treatment with Pamelor, speak to your doctor about increasing or reducing the dosage. A doctor should gradually adjust the intake regimen.

Are there alternatives to Pamelor?

Prescription medications as Alternatives to Pamelor for Anxiety

Pamelor is a medication that is primarily prescribed to treat depression. The anxiety treatment is prescribed off-label and may not fit your particular case. Speak to your doctor about other prescription medications, as they are many:

  • Klonopin
  • Valium
  • Lexapro
  • Prozac
  • Paxil
  • Xanax
  • Inderal
  • Cymbalta
  • Tofranil
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Zoloft

There are various alternatives. If you’d like to learn more about whether Pamelor, another medication or treatment modality is right for you, we recommend that you speak with a licensed psychiatrist. Here are the best online psychiatry platforms so you can speak with someone right away!

Therapy as an Alternative to Pamelor 

Learn more about different therapy options for anxiety here

Energy & Holistic Modalities as an Alternative to Pamelor 

Learn more about different energy & holistics modalities for anxiety here

Tech & Devices as Alternative Treatments to Pamelor

Learn more about tech & devices for anxiety  here

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

Categories
Psychiatry & Medication

Klonopin for Anxiety

The Bottom Line

  • Klonopin is also known as Clonazepam;
  • Klonopin is not FDA-approved for anxiety;
  • Available in tablets and wafers;
  • Responsive in short-term treatment of panic disorders, seizures;
  • There is research-based evidence about its efficacy for anxiety. 

What is Klonopin?

Klonopin is a brand name for Clonazepam and Benzodiazepine used for panic and social anxiety disorders as well as seizure treatments. It has a generic form released under the name of Clonazepam. Klonopin is available in breakable tablets with 0.5mg of Clonazepam, unscored ones with 1-2mg of Clonazepam, and wafers in 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2mg. Tablets contain lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, corn starch. Wafers – gelatin, mannitol, methylparaben sodium, propylparaben sodium, xanthan gum.

How does Klonopin work for anxiety? Benzodiazepine class of medications affects gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptors. They act on nerves in the central nervous system and alter their sensitivity by providing a tranquilizing effect. Klonopin for anxiety is also linked to anti-epileptic property used for seizure disorders.

The efficacy of Klonopin is found in treating panic disorders. Studies demonstrated that patients with panic disorders or its derivative health condition of agoraphobia (no escape disorder, when a person considers an environment unsafe and experiences anxiety attacks) treated with Klonopin showed less frequent worries or preoccupation compared to the placebo.

Can Klonopin be taken for Anxiety? 

Is Klonopin good for anxiety? The exact mechanism of action is unknown. Some research has shown Klonopin to work on increasing the GABA activity which lowered levels of overexcitement. This symptom may improve in a matter of a few days with Klonopin. The application is recommended only for short-term treatment. The long-term application has no clinically-proven efficacy but may develop into an addiction to a synthetically antianxiety effect from Klonopin used for anxiety. A physician should regularly review the usefulness of any extended intake for anxiety treatment.

Is Klonopin FDA approved for anxiety?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved the generic form of Klonopin, Clonazepam to treat panic disorder in 1998. The off-label administration considers its prescription for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD).

What research supports Klonopin for anxiety?

  • Some studies of Klonopin for anxiety have been conducted to reveal its efficacy over other Benzodiazepines in patients with an anxiety disorder. 180 patients over 20 years old took one antidepressant alongside 3 Benzodiazepines including Clonazepam for 6 weeks. The effect was significant with all 3 medications. But, Clonazepam was linked to fewer side effects and higher safety over others.
  • Klonopin for anxiety was checked on the improvement of quality of life. Patients with panic disorder and accompanying anxiety symptoms took Clonazepam for 6 weeks. After they were assessed on changes in previously impaired quality of life (IQL), and work productivity (WP). Titrated doses of Klonopin reported improvements.
  • Per this study Benzodiazepine Klonopin is considered a good option for treating anxiety disorders. Clinicians may suggest it due to its low side effect occurrences, and fast action. But, still, they also should keep in mind the drawback of long-term treatment which leads to addiction to Benzodiazepine. That’s why pharmacological and psychological treatments are to be combined to achieve positive effects for the long-term therapy.

What do experts say about Klonopin for anxiety? 

Larissa Mooney, an assistant professor of psychiatry and director of the Addiction Medicine Clinic at the University of California-Los Angeles says about Klonopin for anxiety – “Benzodiazepines are very effective, particularly in the short term, for the treatment of acute anxiety and insomnia.” “They calm people down, and they help people fall asleep and stay asleep.”

Neeraj Gandotra, M.D., chief medical officer at Delphi Behavioral Health Group says – “Klonopin, the brand name of Clonazepam, is a benzodiazepine-a group of drugs primarily used to treat anxiety.” 

What are the possible side effects? 

Klonopin for anxiety side effects profile warns about the contraindicated interactions with opioids. Such combinations may result in depression, coma, and death. 

The medication is linked to suicidal thoughts or behavior in adults affected by severe depression. 

Patients who receive Klonopin for anxiety and sleep should be warned about its possible interference with motor performance. One should speak to a physician in case he is occupied with operating machinery or hazardous materials. It affects alertness.

Other potential side effects are:

  • Central nervous system (CNS) depression;
  • Behavior problems;
  • Palpitations;
  • Hair loss;
  • Headache;
  • Vertigo;
  • Irritability;
  • Aggression;
  • Confusion.

Withdrawal side effects are somnolence, dizziness, nervousness, depression.

It is unknown if it can harm a fetus in pregnant women. Some studies conducted on animals reported Klonopin damaging effect on the fetus. Born children of women who used to take benzo medications during the pregnancy may be at risk of breathing problems. Klonopin may pass into breast milk. 

Please, speak to your doctor about taking Klonopin if you have kidney, liver or lung problems. 

Does Klonopin have interactions with other medications? 

Klonopin for anxiety taken with certain medications can cause side effects. Speak to your doctor about all possible interactions.

The following medications may interfere with the efficacy and have serious side effects when taken with Klonopin:

  • Opioids;
  • Anticonvulsants;
  • Antidepressants;
  • Antifungals;
  • Painkillers;
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) inhibitors.

It is unknown if herbal supplements may alter the efficacy of Klonopin but do not take an additional sedative, anti-anxiety herbal medicines. Discuss their safety with a doctor.

How to take Klonopin?

Klonopin is available in tablets and wafers. One should swallow the whole tablet with water. 

Klonopin for Seizure:

  • Adults. The treatment starts at the lowest dosage 0.5mg and can be increased up to 1.5mg maximum.
  • Children. Pediatric use suggests the intake with 0.01 – 0.03 mg doses to exclude the possibility of drowsiness.
  • Senior patients. There is no evidence of the efficacy of Klonopin in elderly patients. The treatment may start with the lowest doses determined by a doctor.

Klonopin for Panic Disorder:

  • Adults. The initial dose is 0.25mg.
  • Pediatric. Unknown.
  • Senior patients. Low doses adjusted by a doctor.

Dosages vary in patients and depend on their health conditions. Please, address the application rules to a doctor.

How long does Klonopin work for anxiety? As per clinical studies, the medication is safe for short-term treatment only. A long-term application may lead to addiction.

Are there alternatives to Klonopin? 

Prescription medications as Alternatives to Klonopin for Anxiety

Based on researched data, Klonopin is a medication which efficacy is shown with short-term treatment. It had no evidence on severe side effects with the mentioned clinical trials. The medication is linked to higher safety in application compared to other medications from the benzo group. However, it may not be fit for your health condition. Speak to your doctor, as many other anti-anxiety medications can be suitable for you.

  • Valium
  • Lexapro
  • Prozac
  • Buspirone
  • Xanax
  • Inderal
  • Cymbalta
  • Tofranil
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Zoloft

There are various alternatives. If you’d like to learn more about whether Klonopin, another medication or treatment modality is right for you, we recommend that you speak with a licensed professional. Here are the best online psychiatry platforms so you can speak with someone right away!

Therapy as an Alternative to Klonopin

Learn more about different therapy options for anxiety  here

Energy & Holistic Modalities as an Alternative to Klonopin

Learn more about different energy & holistic modalities for anxiety here

Tech & Devices as Alternative Treatments to Klonopin 

Learn more about tech & devices for anxiety  here

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

Categories
Psychiatry & Medication

Gabapentin for Anxiety

The Bottom Line

  • Gabapentin is a generic medication used off-label for anxiety.
  • It is not approved by the FDA for anxiety.
  • Available in tablets, capsules, and oral solution.

What is Gabapentin?

Gabapentin is a generic anticonvulsant/antiepileptic used for anxiety in adults. It is a generic formula for Neurontin. Primarily, it is approved only to treat seizures. Off-label indication involves the treatment of anxiety, mood disorders, and certain withdrawal symptoms from abuse of drugs or alcohol. It is occasionally prescribed when no other medication responses or causes severe side effects. It is not intended for use in pediatrics for anxiety disorders.

The precise mechanism of how Gabapentin provides anti-anxiety effect is unknown. Still, the medication is believed to imitate the gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) action, and thus, to affect certain chemicals in the brain in charge of nervous system activity.

It is available in oral tablets, capsules, and oral solution.

Can Gabapentin be taken for Anxiety? 

Gabapentin is prescribed only as an off-label medication to treat anxiety. It can only moderate its symptoms. In particular, physicians may use it in psychiatric conditions such as bipolar mania or schizoaffective psychosis where anxiety comes as a symptom. But, still, there are no confirmed indications of this medication for anxiety.

Is Gabapentin FDA approved for anxiety?

In 1993, Gabapentin was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat nerve pain, control seizures in adults and children. Off-label use for anxiety, hot flashes, withdrawal symptoms is not approved by the FDA. In 2009, the FDA additionally suggested using it with caution as it increases suicidal thoughts in both adults and children.

What research supports Gabapentin for anxiety?

There is limited evidence on the efficacy of Gabapentin for anxiety.

  • Gabapentin has been researched involving a 59-year old woman with depression, and anxiety disorder. For 70 days, she took the dosage of 600mg daily. After 70 days, the subject was assessed, and the results demonstrated fluctuating levels of anxiety. In particular, a medication helped achieve remission from anxiety symptoms during the study. The study showed usefulness of Gabapentin with 600-900mg doses daily with a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
  • Gabapentin has been researched using a systematic review approach. About 988 abstracts of existing clinical trials and previous research were studied by two reviewers. The results summed up that Gabapentin is linked to relief in some anxiety disorders but has no major response to bipolar disorder anxiety.
  • Gabapentin has been studied generally as a medication from the anticonvulsant group to treat anxiety disorders. Clinical trials, meta-analysis reviews were included in the research. Extensive evidence has been found on Gabapentin to work for social anxiety but no much data on use in panic disorder.

What do experts say about Gabapentin for anxiety? 

Andrew Saxon, M.D., chair of the American Psychiatric Association’s Council on Addiction Psychiatry says “Non-pain related conditions like anxiety and alcohol withdrawal can benefit from gabapentin.”

What are the possible side effects? 

Gabapentin has precaution information from the FDA, as it may increase suicidal thoughts and behavior. 

Patients may notice side effects such as drowsiness if increasing the dosage in the first days of treatment. Other possible side effects are:

  • drowsiness;
  • fatigue;
  • fever;
  • memory loss.

The medication is linked to withdrawal symptoms in case of sudden discontinuation such as anxiety, sleep problems, and excessive sweating. Reduce a dose gradually.

Gabapentin prescribed to children over 3 may be associated with behavioral abnormalities such as aggression, distracted attention. Children under 3 are not commonly prescribed with this medication. 

There is no clinical evidence about anxiety medication Gabapentin in terms of abuse or dependence. 

In animal studies, Gabapentin has not been linked to fatal consequences. Some mice and rats have had overdose events with the supporting symptoms of double vision, and diarrhea. 

If you have signs of overdose, seek emergency help immediately (call 911).

Does Gabapentin have interactions with other medications?

Gabapentin taken alongside other medications may be linked to dangerous interactions resulting in side effects.

Do not take it alongside antacids and morphine, as they are believed to affect Gabapentin concentration in blood.

Do not combine it with opiates, they may cause drowsiness.

Abstain from drinking alcohol alongside this medication, it may cause dizziness and drowsiness as well as impairment in thinking. 

Always consult your doctor about taking other medications alongside Gabapentin.

Can you take Gabapentin while pregnant or breastfeeding?

There is no evidence about the effect of Gabapentin for anxiety in pregnant women. In animal studies, it has been found fetotoxic causing poor chondrosteosis of bones.  

Do inform your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while taking Gabapentin, as it may not fit your health condition.

The medication is believed to secret in human milk, however, the effect is not clearly understood. Its intake in breastfeeding women is possible in case if a doctor believes the benefits prevail risks.

Can children take Gabapentin for anxiety? 

Children are most likely to receive Gabapentin only to treat seizures. There is no evidence about the usefulness of the medication in treating anxiety disorders.

How to take Gabapentin?

Gabapentin is individually prescribed to patients with anxiety based on their age, health condition, and symptoms. 

A doctor may start Gabapentin treatment with the lowest dosage of 300mg which can be then increased. The tablets can be cut in half to take 3-4 times per day.

In the case of discontinuing treatment with Gabapentin, a doctor will recommend reducing the dose gradually. Ideally, it should take a minimum of a 1-week time frame.

How long does it take for Gabapentin to work for anxiety? There is no clear information, however, the medication effect in other health conditions is linked to a 1-2 week time frame.

Are there alternatives to Gabapentin?

Prescription medications as Alternatives to Gabapentin for Anxiety 

Gabapentin is an antiepileptic medication used off-label to treat anxiety. It is not approved by the FDA for anxiety disorder. Thus, you may need a different medication or approach to address your health condition. Speak to your doctor about alternative prescription medications. Some of them are:

  • Klonopin
  • Valium
  • Lexapro
  • Prozac
  • Buspirone
  • Xanax
  • Inderal
  • Cymbalta
  • Tofranil
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Zoloft

There are various alternatives. If you’d like to learn more about whether Gabapentin, another medication or treatment modality is right for you, we recommend that you speak with a licensed psychiatrist. Here are the best online psychiatry platforms so you can speak with someone right away!

Therapy as an Alternative to Gabapentin

Learn more about different therapy options for anxiety here

Energy & Holistic Modalities as an Alternative to Gabapentin

Learn more about different energy & holistic modalities for anxiety here

Tech & Devices as Alternative Treatments to Gabapentin

Learn more about tech & devices for anxiety here

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

Categories
Psychiatry & Medication

Effexor XR

The Bottom Line:

  • Effexor XR is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI).
  • FDA-approved for depression, anxiety, and panic disorder.
  • It comes in extended-release capsules.

What is Effexor XR?

Effexor XR is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). It is commonly prescribed for depression treatment, in particular, prevention of its relapse. Effexor XR is also indicated for use in anxiety, and panic disorder. Today, it comes in extended-release capsules that allow reducing the number of intakes per day. Effexor, a previous formula, was discontinued by Pfizer.

It fits a long-term application. Depending on the health condition Effexor XR is prescribed for, the effect can be felt within 4-12 weeks on average.

Effexor XR is not a controlled medication. 

Can Effexor XR be taken for Anxiety?

Effexor XR is occasionally prescribed to treat the symptoms of anxiety, and panic attacks. The medication works by balancing the serotonin and norepinephrine activity in the brain which maintained levels then contribute to restoring overall emotional well-being in adults. Anxiety caused by normal stress from everyday life does not require the prescription of this medication. 

Is Effexor XR FDA approved for anxiety?

Effexor XR was approved to treat depression, and anxiety by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Also, the FDA informs doctors about a black box warning issued for this medication. It has the potentiality to increase suicidal thinking in adults. The monitoring of patients is required.

What research supports Effexor XR for anxiety? 

  • Venlafaxine XR was studied against the placebo on the efficacy in treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). 251 subjects with GAD symptoms took Venlafaxine XR for 6 months. The results have demonstrated that Venlafaxine XR improved anxiety scores already in the first weeks. Also, the study has reported that long-term application of Venlafaxine XR is well-tolerated, responding, and should become a working alternative to many other available anxiolytics and antidepressants.
  • Venlafaxine was studied against Paroxetine and placebo on the efficacy in social anxiety disorder (SAD) treatment. 434 subjects with SAD symptoms took daily Venlafaxine 75-225mg, Paroxetine 20-50mg, and placebo for 3 months. The results have demonstrated that Venlafaxine and Paroxetine significantly improved anxiety scores over the placebo. The treatment was well-tolerated with minimum side effects.
  • Venlafaxine was also studied against the placebo on efficacy in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety symptoms. 1573 subjects were enrolled in 8 studies. Venlafaxine significantly improved remission scores in MDD symptoms, and it was supported as responding medication for future treatment of such health conditions.

What do experts say about Effexor XR for anxiety? 

Victoria Kusiak, M.D., deputy director of the Office of Drug Evaluation at FDA says “EFFEXOR XR is a proven serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) supported by a large clinical data set obtained through studies conducted using the most rigorous efficacy measurements. Now with the approval of the social anxiety disorder indication, its efficacy has been demonstrated across an even broader range of symptoms.

What are the possible side effects?

Effexor XR adverse effects may be linked to problems with sexual function. You may have erectile dysfunction, and experience lack of libido. Also, during the treatment with this medication, you may face the following side effects:

  • nausea;
  • excessive sweating;
  • vomiting;
  • dizziness;
  • insomnia;
  • sedation;
  • tremor;
  • Fatigue;
  • chills.

Do not discontinue the treatment without your doctor’s approval and supervision. It may lead to withdrawal symptoms:

  • headache;
  • anxiety;
  • anorexia;
  • confusion;
  • mood swings.

Some studies have reported that the discontinuation of treatment with Venlafaxine may lead to impairment in driving ability. Do not discontinue the use of the medication without your doctor’s approval if your drive.

Effexor XR has a potentiality to increase suicidal thinking in adults. Caution is required.

There were 20 reports of overdose events with Effexor XR with the symptoms of somnolence, nausea, numbness of extremities. Some of the events were associated with interactions of alcohol.

Does Effexor XR have interactions with other medications?

Effexor XR may interact with other medications. Inform your doctor if you plan or already take some of them including herbs, and health supplements. Also, speak to him about all possible interactions to avoid negative outcomes.

Effexor XR may interact with:

  • Antiplatelets;
  • Blood thinners;
  • Antidepressants such as Fluoxetine;
  • Muscle relaxants;
  • Cold medications;
  • Medications containing desvenlafaxine;
  • Antihistamines.

Abstain from drinking alcohol alongside Effexor XR, as it may lead to extreme sedation and symptoms of dizziness, drowsiness, and impairment in thinking.

Can you take Effexor XR while pregnant or breastfeeding? 

There is no adequate evidence about Effexor XR’s harmful effect on pregnant women. However, in animal studies, its use was linked to an increased level of stillborns.

After delivery, newborns to women who take Effexor XR in the last trimester of pregnancy may require artificial pulmonary ventilation and tube feeding. Doctors should prescribe this medication with caution, and only when benefits of such a treatment prevail the risks.

Effexor XR can be excreted into human milk. It is not recommended to take this medication when breastfeeding.

Can children take Effexor XR for anxiety? 

There is no established efficacy or safety of Effexor XR use in children. The FDA does not approve it for pediatrics.

How to take Effexor XR?

A doctor individually prescribes Effexor XR based on age, symptoms, and health condition.

Depression treatment. The initial dosage is 75mg/per day. 

Anxiety and panic disorder treatment. The initial dosage is 75/mg daily, however, a doctor may suggest starting with 37.5mg per day during the first days to adjust to the treatment. 

Effexor XR dosage should be taken with food in the morning or evening. Make a habit of taking a capsule at the same time every day. Swallow a capsule and wash it down with lots of water. Do not chew it or crush it. 

If you believe you overdosed, seek emergency help immediately (call 911). 

Are there alternatives to Effexor XR? 

Prescription medications as Alternatives to Effexor XR for Anxiety 

Effexor XR is an alternative to many other antidepressants used for anxiety treatment. It fits long-term treatment, however, it may not be fit for your particular case. Speak to your doctor about other prescription medications for anxiety. Check some of them:

  • Klonopin
  • Valium
  • Lexapro
  • Prozac
  • Buspirone
  • Xanax
  • Inderal
  • Cymbalta
  • Tofranil
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Zoloft

There are various alternatives. If you’d like to learn more about whether Effexor XR, another medication or treatment modality is right for you, we recommend that you speak with a licensed psychiatrist. Here are the best online psychiatry platforms so you can speak with someone right away!

Therapy as an Alternative to Effexor XR

Learn more about different therapy options for anxiety here

Energy & Holistic Modalities as an Alternative to Effexor XR

Learn more about different energy & holistic modalities for anxiety here

Tech & Devices as Alternative Treatments to Effexor XR

Learn more about tech & devices for anxiety here

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

Categories
Psychiatry & Medication

Buspirone for Anxiety

The Bottom Line

  • Buspirone is a serotonin receptor antagonist.
  • It is not considered a first-line medication to treat anxiety symptoms, that’s why it may be prescribed alongside other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • Buspirone is an FDA-approved medication for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
  • Available only as a generic in oral tablet form.
  • It is not linked to dependence.

What is Buspirone? 

Buspirone is a medication used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). By origin, it is a serotonin receptor antagonist. It affects neurotransmitters in the brain which then develop an anti-anxiety effect. Alternative use of this medication is linked to alleviating irritability, promoting healthy sleep and a clear mind. 

Buspirone for anxiety is available only in a generic form. The branded version Buspar is discontinued for manufacturing. Today, it is not considered a first-line medication to treat anxiety symptoms, that’s why it may be prescribed alongside other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It can be used in situations when no other anti-anxiety medication responds or causes many side effects.

It is available in oral tablets of 5, 10, 15, 30 mg strengths. The active ingredient is buspirone hydrochloride alongside inactive ingredients colloidal silicon dioxide, lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate. The tablet in 30 mg strength contains iron oxide.

Buspiron’s mechanism of action is not clearly outlined. Anxiety medication Buspirone does not provide anticonvulsant effects as benzodiazepines. It has no sedative effect like other anxiolytics. It is believed to affect dopamine and serotonin. This effect on these chemicals may explain the anti-anxiety benefit.

Always speak to your doctor about taking Buspirone for anxiety, as it may not be suitable for you.

Can Buspirone be taken for anxiety?

Buspirone is occasionally prescribed for short-term GAD treatment and relieving anxiety symptoms. Anxiety caused by daily stress is not an indication for use of Buspirone. There is no known evidence about the efficacy of this anxiolytic in long term treatment for anxiety. 

Is Buspirone FDA approved for anxiety?

Buspirone was first approved under the brand name of BuSpar to treat anxiety disorder, in particular, GAD, in 1986 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Starting from 2001, when the patent expired, it has become available in a generic form only.

What research supports Buspirone for anxiety?

Does Buspirone work for anxiety? Extensive evidence about its efficacy for anxiety exists.

  • Buspirone dosage for anxiety was studied alongside placeboes for GAD treatment. 520 patients have reported improvements in symptoms of GAD with Buspirone over the placebo. However, the research showed its significant efficacy only with regularly taking the medication. 
  • Buspirone anxiety was researched on safety for GAD treatment. Over 600 patients have been treated with Buspirone for anxiety for 6 months up to 1 year. One year treatment has reported no new and no previously found side effects that occurred in short-term treatment. Most patients received 15-30 mg doses daily. When therapy was discontinued, there were no withdrawal symptoms. Even though it is not recommended for long term treatment, the research proved its safety and efficacy. 
  • Buspirone’s anti-anxiety effects were studied against the placebo in patients with GAD. 121 patients have completed treatment for 6 weeks. The study reported significant improvements for anxiety and depressive symptoms treatment with mild side effects. 

What do experts say about Buspirone for anxiety?

Elias Aboujaoude, MD, clinical professor and chief of the anxiety disorders section at Stanford University School of Medicine says “Buspirone has occupied its own niche in the treatment options we have for anxiety because it does not have the addiction potential of other popular antianxiety medications — namely, the benzodiazepines — which gives it an advantage in the treatment of anxiety in certain patients.”

What are the possible side effects?

Buspirone is not a controlled substance. Its intake may be associated with the following common side effects:

  • dizziness;
  • nausea;
  • headache;
  • excitement.

The withdrawal symptoms are:

  • dizziness;
  • insomnia;
  • drowsiness;
  • Fatigue;
  • anxiety.

Can Buspirone cause anxiety? Yes, it may come as a withdrawal symptom.

Rare overdose events were reported during clinical trials. The symptoms of overdose included nausea, vomiting, dizziness. In both human and animal studies, there were no reported events of abuse or dependence. If you believe you overdosed, seek emergency help immediately (call 911).

Does Buspirone have interactions with other medications?

Certain medications should not be used alongside Buspirone for anxiety due to the risk of experiencing side effects or altering the effects of the medication.

The potential interactions of Buspirone with the following medications:

  • Fluoxetine;
  • Verapamil;
  • Gabapentin;
  • Trazodone;
  • Clomipramine;
  • Doxepin;
  • Rifampin;
  • St John’s Wort.

The following interactions are contraindicated:

  • Isocarboxide;
  • Phenelzine;
  • Tranylcypromine.

Abstain from grapefruit juice consumption. It is believed to increase the plasma concentrations of medication.

Avoid interactions with alcohol. It may increase the risk of drowsiness and lightheadedness. 

Always consult your doctor about taking other medications alongside Buspirone for anxiety.

Can you take Buspirone while pregnant or breastfeeding? 

In animal studies, no fertility abnormalities or fetus damage was reported. There is no known evidence about the application of Buspirone for anxiety in pregnant women. However, animal studies cannot be a guarantee for safety in human use, Buspirone should not be used during pregnancy.

While there is no support for the excretion of Buspirone in human milk, animal studies have shown that Buspirone was reported to excrete into the mother’s milk. Therefore, is not recommended for treatment while breastfeeding.

How to take Buspirone?

Buspirone for anxiety comes in oral tablets which can be cut in half to take 2-3 times per day as prescribed by a doctor.  The dosage is prescribed based on your health condition, age, and anxiety symptoms. 

Usually, the treatment starts with the initial dosages of 15mg daily. It can be increased gradually and should not be over 60mg daily. 

Patients should take Buspirone for anxiety at the same time every day. Take it with or without food. 

Are there alternatives to Buspirone?

Prescription medications as Alternatives to Buspirone for Anxiety 

Anxiety medication Buspirone is not the first-line medication used to treat anxiety disorder and its supporting symptoms. If you believe it may fit your health condition, please speak to your doctor. There are many other prescription medications which can be suitable for treatment of GAD:

  • Klonopin
  • Valium
  • Lexapro
  • Prozac
  • Paxil
  • Xanax
  • Inderal
  • Cymbalta
  • Tofranil
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Zoloft

There are various alternatives. If you’d like to learn more about whether Buspirone, another medication or treatment modality is right for you, we recommend that you speak with a licensed psychiatrist. Here are the best online psychiatry platforms so you can speak with someone right away!

Therapy as an Alternative to Buspirone 

Learn more about different therapy options for anxiety here

Energy & Holistic Modalities as an Alternative to Buspirone 

Learn more about different energy & holistic modalities for anxiety here

Tech & Devices as Alternative Treatments to Buspirone

Learn more about tech & devices for anxiety  here

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

Categories
Psychiatry & Medication

Buspar for Anxiety

The Bottom Line

  • Buspar is an azapirone medication that mimics the action of serotonin antagonists.
  • FDA-approved to treat anxiety symptoms.
  • Available in oral tablets, and suggested as an alternative to other medications or in combination for short-term treatment only.

What is Buspar?

Buspar is a medication from the azaspirodecanedione (azapirone) class. It is prescribed to treat anxiety, in particular, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and its accompanying symptoms of fear, irritability, or tension. A doctor may occasionally prescribe it for short-term treatment, as its long-term application has not been found efficient. Buspar is no longer manufactured in the U.S., leaving its generic formula Buspirone in short supply on the pharmaceutical market.

Buspar is supplied in oral tablets of 5,10, 15,30 mg strengths. The active ingredient is buspirone hydrochloride alongside inactive agents of colloidal silicon dioxide, lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, and iron oxide (in 30mg tablets only).

Buspar is not the first-line medication in anxiety treatment. Typically, it works best in combination with other antianxiety medications, or as a substitute if previous approaches are not responding to treatment or cause health issues.

Can Buspar be taken for Anxiety? 

Buspar is prescribed to treat anxiety and its accompanying symptoms. In particular, it has been found responding only to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) treatment. As a representative of the azapirone class which includes antidepressants and anxiolytics, Buspar is believed to regulate neurotransmitters in the brain. When the levels of serotonin and dopamine are balanced, a person can start feeling relief and sedation. Its effect can be felt in 2-4 weeks. 

Is Buspar FDA approved for anxiety?

In 1986, Buspar was approved for anxiety by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 2001, the patent has expired, and it has been discontinued from manufacturing. Today, its generic formula Buspirone is still available for sale.

What research supports Buspar for anxiety?

  • Buspar was studied on efficacy in anxiety treatment by reviewers. Data from studies with over 1,000 anxious subjects has been gathered and demonstrated that Buspar responds best to treatment at 20mg doses. Its use was linked to fewer side effects concerning impairment of cognition, and motor performance. And, it was found safer than benzodiazepines.
  • Buspar was studied as an alternative treatment for anxiety in subjects with a history of substance abuse and risk of bleeding due to hematological health conditions. A 50-year-old woman with anxiety, social phobia, alcohol abuse, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was administered Buspar 10-30mg daily for 6 months. The results have demonstrated that Buspar was a safe medication in patients with a risk of bleeding, beneficial over benzodiazepines in terms of addiction, and efficient in moderating anxiety symptoms.
  • Buspar was studied against Sertraline on efficacy in elderly patients with a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). 46 subjects were administered Buspar 10-25mg and Sertraline 50-100mg daily for 2 months. Both medications have demonstrated anxiolytic effects, with Buspar superior already in 2 weeks of time. Their intake has not been linked to adverse effects.

What do experts say about Buspar for anxiety? 

James W. Murrough, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai says “It occupies a special place in psychopharmacology because of its unique nature. It’s a very important piece of what we can offer patients who have anxiety.”

What are the possible side effects? 

Buspar has been rarely linked to side effects during the clinical trials, however, as it mimics the action of serotonin antagonists, its use may cause health issues.

Buspar for anxiety side effects:

  • dizziness;
  • nausea;
  • headache;
  • confusion;
  • fever;
  • skin rash.

Withdrawal symptoms:

  • dizziness;
  • insomnia;
  • drowsiness;
  • lightheadedness;
  • Fatigue.

The overdose events have been reported with Buspar at high doses of 375mg or in combination with other medications and alcohol. No fatal outcomes have been found when it was administered alone.

There is no support or evidence about abuse or dependence on this medication, still, prescription and caution are required.

Does Buspar have interactions with other medications? 

Buspar may interact with certain medications. Always do speak about safe and dangerous interactions with your doctor. Also, inform him if you are already on treatment with medications, herbs, and health supplements.

Buspar for anxiety may interact with:

  • MAO inhibitors;
  • Psychotropics;
  • Diazepam;
  • CYP3A4 inhibitors;
  • Amitriptyline;
  • Fluoxetine;
  • Gabapentin;
  • Doxepin.

Abstain from alcohol and grapefruit juice consumptions, as they may alter the effect of Buspar, cause drowsiness, and increase its plasma concentrations. 

Buspar for anxiety may affect your judgment ability and alertness, abstain from driving a car or operating heavy machinery until you know how Buspar works for your particular case.

Can you take Buspar while pregnant or breastfeeding? 

In animal studies, Buspar for anxiety has not been linked to malformations and abnormalities in the fetus. There is a lack of evidence and research about its effect on pregnant women, however, it is still not recommended for use.

Buspar for anxiety has been excreted into rats’ milk in animal studies. It is not recommended for use in nursing mothers.

Can children take Buspar for anxiety? 

It is not recommended to prescribe Buspar for anxiety to children under 18, as there is no clinical proof of its efficacy and safety.

How to take Buspar?

The dosage is only prescribed based on your age, health condition, and anxiety symptoms. 

The initial dosing regimen is 15mg daily. The tablets can be cut in half. If the treatment shows no response to symptoms or general well-being, a doctor may increase the dosage gradually. However, it should not be over 60mg per day.

Do not exceed the dosage if you feel no effect, it takes up to 4 weeks to experience relief. Take it as directed with or without food. Make a habit of taking the medication at the same time every day. If you skip a dose, take it as soon as you remember and address this concern with your doctor. 

Are there alternatives to Buspar?

Prescription medications as Alternatives to Buspar for Anxiety

Buspar is no longer manufactured. Buspirone, a generic version is available but in short supply. Speak to your doctor about all the other possible prescription medications that can fit your particular case. Some of them are:

  • Klonopin
  • Valium
  • Lexapro
  • Prozac
  • Paxil
  • Xanax
  • Inderal
  • Cymbalta
  • Tofranil
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Zoloft

There are various alternatives. If you’d like to learn more about whether Buspar, another medication or treatment modality is right for you, we recommend that you speak with a licensed psychiatrist. Here are the best online psychiatry platforms so you can speak with someone right away!

Therapy as an Alternative to Buspar 

Learn more about different therapy options for anxiety here

Energy & Holistic Modalities as an Alternative to Buspar

Learn more about different energy & holistics modalities for anxiety here

Tech & Devices as Alternative Treatments to Buspar

Learn more about tech & devices for anxiety  here

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

Categories
Psychiatry & Medication

Antihistamines for Anxiety

The Bottom Line

  • Antihistamine is a medication most often used for allergy symptoms, insomnia or cold treatments.
  • Certain antihistamines are occasionally used for other applications, such as anxiety.
  • Hydroxyzine is the most commonly prescribed antihistamine for anxiety.
  • Antihistamines are sometimes used for an anesthetic effect before or after surgery. 

What are antihistamines?

Antihistamines are medications used for allergies and symptoms caused by histamine, a chemical that exhibits allergic reactions. It helps to suppress the allergy trigger like pollen, dust or pet wool. Antihistamines are best for short-term treatment and can be taken for cold symptoms such as a runny nose, sneezing, congestion. Some patients consider them as on-demand medications when the onset of a certain season causes allergic reactions. A doctor can occasionally prescribe an antihistamine for anxiety or insomnia such as Hydroxyzine.

Hydroxyzine is the most commonly prescribed antihistamine for anxiety. Primarily, it is used to treat skin allergic reactions such as hives or itching in both adults and children. It works also by reducing the central nervous system activity based on which Hydroxyzine can function as a sedative medication to treat anxiety or help relax a patient before or after the surgery. 

Hydroxyzine is available in capsules, tablets, oral suspension or syrup. Hydroxyzine is also available in a generic form and the brand names are Atarax, Vistaril. 

Can antihistamines be taken for Anxiety? 

Hydroxyzine is the only medication from the group of antihistamines which can be used for anxiety relief associated with psychoneurosis. Hydroxyzine can also be taken for conditions where anxiety is manifested as a symptom. There is no evidence of its efficacy with long-term treatment. A physician should assess the usefulness of Hydroxyzine in every patients depending on the severity of anxiety, age or history of diseases.

Are antihistamines FDA approved for anxiety?

In 1956, the brand medication for Hydroxyzine, Atarax was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat allergy symptoms, however, the manufacturing has been discontinued in 2009. Accordingly, Hydroxyzine as an antihistamine for anxiety can be used only as an off-label medication when no other alternative or first-line medications are useful, they cause side effects or do not show efficacy in treatment.

What research supports antihistamines for anxiety? 

  • A study on the comparison of classic vs brand new classes of antihistamines for anxiety has been conducted where 92 people took Cetirizine, Hydroxyzine, Desloratadine, Levocetirizine, Rupatadine for one month. They were assessed on the first and last days of the study. The last three, Desloratadine, Levocetirizine, Rupatadine reported lower scores on depression, anxiety, mood, and sleep disturbances. Both classes improved nocturnal sleep.
  • Hydroxyzine is a sedative antihistamine for anxiety which was licensed for the short-term application in adults only. The safe application of Hydroxyzine is at 50-100mg dosage 4 times per day. Doctors support Hydroxyzine use for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) treatment for one month.
  • The research on Hydroxyzine efficacy over the placebo was conducted over 39 studies with 884 patients with GAD. The results confirmed higher efficacy of Hydroxyzine, its tolerance, acceptability. Some patients developed drowsiness as a side effect.
  • Hydroxyzine for anxiety with Buspirone were both compared with the placebo. 244 patients followed the treatment for 4 weeks. 31 patients decided to discontinue the treatment. The results showed that both medications were responding to anxiety symptoms, and showed more effect over the placebo. Thus, Hydroxyzine was considered useful for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

What do experts say about antihistamines for anxiety?

David J. Nutt, neuropsychopharmacologist specialising in the research of drugs, and James C. Ballenger MD., neurologist both write “Hydroxyzine has also been widely used to treat anxiety in conjunction with bodily symptoms in the context of psychosomatic syndromes, because of its beneficial effect on somatized anxiety, in particular cardiac anxiety. Hydroxyzine is more effective in treating anxiety of neurotic nature, than in relieving psychotic anxiety.”

What are the possible side effects?

There are potential side effects when taking Hydroxyzine:

  • Drowsiness;
  • Nausea;
  • Low appetite;
  • Nervousness;
  • Dry mouth;
  • Dizziness;
  • Mood swings in children;
  • Confusion;
  • Blurred vision.

If the antihistamine you are taking is linked to drowsiness, and you operate heavy machinery or otherwise need to be alert, speak to a doctor about taking this medication. 

Hydroxyzine may be contraindicated for use in patients with glaucoma, liver/kidney diseases, high blood pressure, enlarged prostate. Inform your doctor about the history of these diseases and your full medical history. 

Many antihistamines such as Cetirizine, chlorphenamine are well-tolerated and can be used in pregnant and nursing women. 

Hydroxyzine is not recommended for use in nursing mothers, as it is unknown whether it excretes into breast milk. Also, Hydroxyzine should not be taken during the first trimester of pregnancy. Always speak to your doctor about taking this medication while pregnant.

Do antihistamines have interactions with other medications? 

An antihistamine Hydroxyzine taken with other medications may cause side effects or have interactions with other medications. It is prohibited to combine treatments without a doctor’s approval. 

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO), Anticholinergics drugs, CYP2D6 Inhibitors, Radioactive Iodide interacted with Hydroxyzine or other antihistamines for anxiety may lead to severe or fatal consequences. 

Do not take Hydroxyzine with antidepressants, cold (with antihistamine in the composition) and indigestion medications without your doctor’s approval.

Do not drink alcohol when you are on the anxiety treatment with Hydroxyzine, it may alter the efficacy, and make you drowsy.

Do not stop the intake or change the dosage of Hydroxyzine at your sole discretion.

How to take antihistamines?

Hydroxyzine for anxiety dose is prescribed and adjusted only by a doctor depending on the severity of symptoms, age, and individual response. Hydroxyzine is available in tablets to take by mouth with or without food up to 4 times per day. Do not break or chew a tablet. 

A doctor may prescribe Hydroxyzine solution or syrup for anxiety which one should measure using a measuring spoon prior to intake. 

If you skip a dose of Hydroxyzine, address this concern to your doctor. Do not take double of the prescribed dose to catch up with the regimen.

Take Hydroxyzine as directed by your doctor. 

Are there alternatives to antihistamines?

Prescription medications as alternatives to Antihistamines for Anxiety 

Hydroxyzine or antihistamines for anxiety are medications that are only fit for certain type of patients. They are prescribed in exclusive situations when the first-line treatment was not responding or caused many side effects. For alternative anxiety treatment Hydroxyzine, a doctor may prescribe the following medications:

  • Trazodone
  • Klonopin
  • Meclizine
  • Melatonin
  • Aniracetam
  • L-theanine
  • Nicotine
  • L-tyrosine
  • Theacrine
  • Ashwagandha
  • Bacopa Monnieri
  • Noopept
  • B Vitamins

There are various alternatives. If you’d like to learn more about whether antihistamines, another medication or treatment modality is right for you, we recommend that you speak with a licensed professional. Here are the best online psychiatry platforms so you can speak with someone right away!

Therapy as an Alternative to Antihistamines 

Learn more about different therapy options for anxiety  here

Energy & Holistic Modalities as an Alternative to Antihistamines 

Learn more about different energy & holistic modalities for anxiety here

Tech & Devices as Alternative Treatments to Antihistamines

Learn more about tech & devices for anxiety  here

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

Categories
Psychiatry & Medication

Prescription Medications for Anxiety

The Bottom Line

  • Anxiety is an emotional condition with varying severity.
  • There are 5 major types of anxiety, they are Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
  • Anxiety treatment includes FDA-approved prescription medications that have been approved specifically for anxiety and off-label medications that can sometimes be prescribed for anxiety by a doctor.

What is Anxiety?

Anxiety is an emotional and physical manifestation, usually caused by stress, fear, or worry. It is often manageable and a normal human emotion that is linked to a body’s natural response to a potential threat. However, anxiety levels may surpass moderate levels and may become uncontrollable, accompanied by panic attacks, depression, or interfere with your life. At this point, it is your nervous system and body’s alert to speak to your doctor about taking prescription medications for anxiety or undergoing certain therapies for anxiety. If not treated, anxiety may lead to a medical disorder.

Today, anxiety is the most diagnosed mental illness in the USA. Over 40 million people suffer from it yearly.  Anxiety is considered to be highly treatable. However, less than 40% of those suffering from anxiety actually seek treatment. It also usually takes a very long time to be diagnosed. It takes on average 9-12 years for a female to be diagnosed with anxiety after the start of symptoms. 

If you decide that treatment with prescription medication for anxiety may be for you, you must speak with a doctor (usually General Practitioner or a Psychiatrist) and only your doctor may prescribe you medication. You can find out how to find a psychiatrist near you here. 

To understand your level of anxiety, you can take this self-assessment test. 

Different Types of Anxiety

Medical experts determine five major types of anxiety disorders and use certain prescription medications for anxiety to treat them. 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Patients diagnosed with GAD experience preoccupation, anticipation of danger or catastrophe, or they are bothered with the daily life that before seemed normal. GAD can develop gradually and manifest itself in irritability, excessive nervousness, sweating, and difficulty sleeping. Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) alongside prescription medications from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) group have shown efficacy for GAD. However, there’s a large variety of treatment plans, those that include and do not include prescription medication for anxiety.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Together with other types of anxiety disorders, OCD may interfere with your daily routine. It is manifested in repetitive behaviors or obsessions over certain things-to-do such as hand washing or overthinking. Also, this mental disorder is sometimes linked to a fear of being contaminated by touching other people or an inability to throw away unnecessary items. A doctor may occasionally prescribe medications for anxiety or antidepressants. Again, other modalities are available to treat OCD. 

Panic Disorder. The panic may occur unexpectedly and be followed by accompanying symptoms of sweating, trembling, accelerated heart rate, trouble breathing. Patients diagnosed with this disorder are often anticipating the next panic attack and building a plan to avoid it. Doctors may prescribe SSRIs medications to treat this health condition. Again, other modalities are available to treat OCD. 

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Compared to other types of anxiety disorders, PTSD is linked to stressful events that harmed or threatened the patient’s life. Events can be connected to military service, violence, bullying, natural disasters among others. SSRIs medications are usually prescribed to treat PTSD alongside psychotherapy. Lately, a lot of promising research has supported the use of mind-altering medicines for PTSD, such as MDMA, psilocybin, and ketamine. Other modalities are also available. 

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Doctors may diagnose SAD in people who have excessive worries or fear of socialization. They may be scared to talk to other people, eat or drink next to them, or work in a team. They prefer avoiding crowds and staying alone. CBT alongside depression medications may be prescribed for use in patients with SAD. Other modalities are also available to treat SAD.

This article will focus on the coverage of prescription medications for anxiety. However, there is a variety of other modalities and treatment plans that are available for all types of anxiety. 

What are the different types of medications for anxiety?

All types of anxiety require prompt attention and treatment from a doctor. Specific treatment can alleviate symptoms, help balance a healthy clear of mind and minimize stress triggers. Speak to your doctor about a prescription medication for anxiety that may be fit for your health condition. 

This is not a comprehensive list of all prescription medications for anxiety, get to know more about other prescription medications from your doctor.

Prescription medications for anxiety approved by the FDA require a legal prescription to be dispensed. They are safe and effective for anxiety according to the FDA only when prescribed and used under your doctor’s supervision. Off-label medications for anxiety have not been approved by the FDA for this health condition, however, a doctor may occasionally prescribe them if the benefits prevail risks, or no other medication showed efficacy.

Prescription medications 

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for anxiety

  • Celexa;
  • Cipralex;
  • Lexapro;
  • Luvox;
  • Paxil;
  • Prozac;
  • Zoloft.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants that increase serotonin levels. The prescription medication from SSRIs class slows down the absorption of serotonin in the blood to keep the high levels of serotonin for regulating mood and relieving the anxiety symptoms. They take 3 to 6 weeks on average to start showing effects, however, it may not always be fit for your medical condition. Speak to your doctor about the safe use of SSRIs.

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

  • Cymbalta;
  • Effexor;
  • Pristiq.

Unlike SSRIs, SNRIs medication works simultaneously on two neurotransmitters. This prescription medication is believed to minimize the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine chemicals in the brain and then, improve a person’s mood, reduce anxiety and depression. SNRIs effect can usually be observed in a couple of weeks.

Tricyclic antidepressants 

  • Elavil;
  • Pamelor;
  • Norpramin;
  • Tofranil.

Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) are medications to treat anxiety symptoms and most often for panic disorder. The prescription medication from TCAs class works similarly to SNRIs by affecting serotonin and norepinephrine levels.

Benzodiazepines

  • Valium;
  • Xanax;
  • Klonopin;
  • Librium;
  • Ativan;

Benzodiazepine (Benzo) medication is prescribed for short-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). It works as a tranquilizer which helps relax and slow down the activity of the nervous system. However, Benzodiazepines may have anxiety as a side effect. It may not be fit for your health condition. Speak to your doctor about taking Benzo medications.

Off-label medications prescribed for anxiety 

A doctor may prescribe other medications for anxiety which are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but occasionally used off-label for anxiety treatment. It happens when first-line prescription medications do not show efficacy or cause many side effects. Note, this is not an extensive list of off-label medications. Speak to your doctor to know what fits you best.

  • Lyrica;
  • Buspar;
  • Antivert;
  • Neurontin;
  • Gabitril;
  • Topamax;
  • Trazodone;
  • Seroquel XR;
  • Hydroxyzine;
  • MAOIs;
  • Beta-Blockers.

Lyrica (Pregabalin)

Pregabalin is an off-label prescription medication for anxiety. It is FDA-approved for neuropathic pain. Structurally, Pregabalin is similar to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) which has shown to have an antianxiety effect. A doctor may prescribe it for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

Buspar (Buspirone)

Buspirone is a serotonin receptor antagonist. This prescription medication is used off-label for anxiety. Today, FDA discontinued Buspar but generic Buspirone is still available for prescription. It works by affecting neurotransmitters in the brain which then develop an anti-anxiety effect. 

Antivert (Meclizine)

Meclizine is a prescription medication from the class of antihistamines that are usually used to treat allergies. It is not FDA approved for anxiety but may be prescribed off-label for anxiety. It is believed to suppress panic attacks, emotional stress or anticipation of dangerous outcomes typical for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

Neurontin (Gabapentin)

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant medication FDA-approved for seizure treatment. It may be prescribed off-label for anxiety. It imitates GABA activity and affects brain chemicals responsible for the nervous system functions. 

Gabitril (Tiagabine)

Tiagabine is an antiepileptic medication. An off-label indication is linked to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) treatment. This prescription medication for anxiety is believed to increase GABA activity. It is often used in combination with other medications.

Topamax (Topiramate)

A doctor may prescribe Topamax for anxiety, PTSD, and mood disorders. The FDA suggests this medication only to treat convulsions. Besides, the FDA considers its intake with a black box warning, as it may increase suicidal thoughts.

Trazodone

Trazodone’s mechanism for anxiety relief is not clearly outlined. It is a triazolopyridine derivative from the group of serotonin receptor antagonists SARIs and it is believed to increase serotonin levels.

Seroquel XR (Quetiapine XR)

Quetiapine is most likely to be prescribed off-label for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The mechanism of action is not clearly understood but it is believed to balance certain chemicals in the brain.

Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril)

Hydroxyzine is an antihistamine prescription medication and can sometimes be prescribed off label for anxiety. It works by reducing the central nervous system function and lowering anxiety symptoms. A doctor may administer it before or after the surgery to help relax a patient. It fits best the short-term treatment.

MAOIs

  • isocarboxazid (Marplan);
  • phenelzine (Nardil);
  • selegiline (Emsam);
  • tranylcypromine (Parnate).

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are depression medications sometimes prescribed off-label to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). 

Beta-Blockers

Beta-Blockers are medications such as Tenormin and Inderal that affect norepinephrine and minimize symptoms of anxiety. However, doctors prescribe them primarily to treat high blood pressure.

Disclaimer: This website does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on our Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911